п»їFunctional Styles of Presentation
The Colloquial Style
This is the style of informal, friendly oral conversation. The language of colloquial style is often lower than the formal or neutral styles, it is often emotionally coloured. Colloquial speech is characterized by the frequent usage of words using a broad which means (С€РёСЂРѕРєРѕР·РїР°С‡РЅС‹Рµ СЃР»РѕРІР°): speakers make use of a small group of words in several meanings, while in a formal style (official, business, scientific) every term is to be found in a specific and clear which means. There are keyword phrases and constructions typical of colloquial type: What's up? (= What has happened); so-so (=not especially good); Greetings doing? (= How are issues with you? ); Sorry? Excuse? ( = Please, replicate, Ididn't listen to you); Help you ( = Good-bye), etc . In grammar there may be: a) the use of shortened variants of word-forms, e. g. isn't, can't; there's; I'd claim; b) the application of elliptical phrases вЂ” Want it? (= Perform you/Did you want it? ) вЂ” Not too much (= I put on 't love it too much); May I actually? (= Might I question a question/do this? ). The simple phrases and asyndetic connection between your parts of sentences is used in the syntax of colloquial conversation. Complex constructions with non-finite forms are rarely used. Familiar-Colloquial Style and Slang (С„Р°РјРёР»СЊСЏСЂРЅРѕ-СЂР°Р·РіРѕРІРѕСЂРЅС‹Р№ СЃС‚РёР»СЊ, Р¶Р°СЂРіРѕРЅС‹) The familiar-colloquial style used in very free, friendly, relaxed situations of communication (between close friends, users of one friends and family, etc . ). Here we discover emotionally coloured words, low-colloquial vocabulary (РїСЂРѕСЃС‚РѕСЂРµС‡РЅР°СЏ Р»РµРєСЃРёРєР°) and slang phrases. This style admits as well of the use of rude and vulgar language, including expletives /obscene words and phrases /four-letter words /swearwords (Р±СЂР°РЅРЅР°СЏ Р»РµРєСЃРёРєР°). Some examples of familiar-colloquial/low-colloquial words (also called 'slang'): Rot/trash/stuff ( = smth. bad); the cat's pyjamas (=just the right/suitable thing); bread-basket (= stomach). The word slang is used in a very broad and obscure sense. Besides denoting low-colloquial (familiar-colloquial) terms, it is also utilized to denote special social jargons/cants, i. at the. words commonly used by particular social teams to show the speaker is owned by this group and formerly to make conversation incomprehensible to others. There is also teenagers' slang/jargon, college slang, military slang, prison slang, etc . But often words via a particular lingo spread outdoors its sociable group and turn general slang. See instances of general United kingdom slang: crackers (= crazy), the year department of transportation (= long ago), find the hump ( = obtain angry), mug (=fool), nipper (= youthful child), ratted (= drunk). There is also specialist slang/jargon, my spouse and i. e. phrases which are used by people inside their professional activity: tin-fish ( = submarine); block-buster (= a bomb- in army use, or possibly a very successfitlfilm вЂ” in show business). The Formal (Lofty, Bookish) Style (РІС‹СЃРѕРєРёР№, РєРЅРёР¶РЅС‹Р№ СЃС‚РёР»СЊ) A formal (lofty, bookish) design is required in case of of official relations between the interlocutors, whom try to avoid any kind of personal and emotional coloring or understanding, and at the same time to attain clarity (РїРѕРЅРёРјР°РЅРёРµ, СЏСЃРЅРѕСЃС‚СЊ) of expression. This style is utilized in various styles of conversation, such as in official (legal, diplomatic, etc . ) papers, scientific performs, publicist performs or open public speeches, etc . The Style of Established or Business Documents
Standard (legal, diplomatic, etc . ) and organization documents are written within a formal, 'cold' style of speech, which needs the choice of a special kind of language, grammar forms and buildings. Such papers often need the use of particular formulas of politeness and cliches, at the. g. My spouse and i beg to share with you; Dear Sir; We all remain respectfully yours, etc . Official paperwork are frequently characterized by the use of short-hand or conventional symbols. MEGAPIXEL (Member of Parliament), Gvt (government), Limited (company of limited liability), Co (company). Official or perhaps business documents may require particular patterns. The syntax of official or perhaps business design is...